Victorian Tall Eucalypt Forest Plot Network: Victorian Central highlands fire refuges project: Fire severity predictions and maps for the O’Shannassy and Maroonndah Water Catchments, Victoria, Australia, 2002-2009

Typecollection
TitleVictorian Tall Eucalypt Forest Plot Network: Victorian Central highlands fire refuges project: Fire severity predictions and maps for the O’Shannassy and Maroonndah Water Catchments, Victoria, Australia, 2002-2009
Alternate TitleVictorian Tall Eucalypt Forest Plot Network: Fire Severity Predictions And Maps, 2002–2009
Collection TypeDataset
Access PrivilegesLong Term Ecological Research Network
DOI - Digital Object Identifier10.25911/5c45394931e9d
Metadata LanguageEnglish
Data LanguageEnglish
Brief DescriptionOur study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential that within these envelopes, forest is protected from logging, roads and other developments so that the ecological processes related to the establishment and subsequent use of fire refuges are maintained.


Full DescriptionAbstract: We used a case study in an Australian wet montane forest to establish how predictive fire simulation models can be interpreted as management tools to identify potential fire refuges. We tested the ability of a topographically based fire prediction model developed by Mackey et al (2002) in the O’Shannassy and Maroondah water catchments, NE north-east of Melbourne, Australia, with fire severity data collected following a large wildfire in 2009 in the same area. We derived our fire severity data from a larger map created by the Department of Sustainability and Environment (2009), using SPOT satellite imagery and the normalised-burnt ratio. We examined the relationship between the probability of fire refuge occurrence as predicted by an existing fire refuge model and fire severity experienced during a large wildfire. We also examined the extent to which local fire severity was influenced by fire severity in the surrounding landscape. We used a combination of statistical approaches including generalised linear modelling, variogram analysis and receiver operating characteristics and area under the curve analysis (ROC AUC).

We found that the amount of unburnt habitat and the factors influencing the retention and location of fire refuges varied with fire conditions. Under extreme fire conditions, the distribution of fire refuges was limited to only extremely sheltered, fire-resistant regions of the landscape. During extreme fire conditions, fire severity patterns were largely determined by stochastic factors that could not be predicted by the model. When fire conditions were moderate, physical landscape properties appeared to mediate fire severity distribution.

Our study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential that within these envelopes, forest is protected from logging, roads and other developments so that the ecological processes related to the establishment and subsequent use of fire refuges are maintained.

Sampling method: As the region surrounding our study area is subject to heavy logging pressure, we chose to sample the O’Shannassy and Maroondah catchments only to remove any potential influence of logging on fire severity. See Mackey, B., D. Lindenmayer, M. Gill, M. McCarthy, and J. Lindesay (2002) Wildlife, Fire and Future Climate: A Forest Ecosystem Analysis. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood and Department of Sustainability and Environment (2009) Remote sensing guideline for assessing landscape-scale fire severity in Victoria’s forest estate. Unpublished technical manual, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.

Study extent: The predicted severity values were created in 2002 by Mackey et al (2002). The fire severity data were collected by DSE (2009) following the 2009 ‘Black Saturday’ bushfires in the region.

Project funding: This project was not directly funded by any sources. Laurence Berry was supported by an ARC discovery scholarship as part of the Victorian Central Highlands (VCH) long term research project.

Field observations used to cross-validate the DSE (2009) fire severity data were collected from long term monitoring sites across the VCH by project field staff. These observations were made in 2009. Between 2012 and 2018 the Plot Network infrstructure was funded as part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN), a facility within the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN). TERN is supported by the Australian Government through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy.
Methods

Number
1
Title
Assembling fire severity data
Description
The fire severity data presented in this data package was originally created by DSE (2009) using the normalized-burn ratio from SPOT satellite data. We trimmed the DSE fire severity layer to within the extent of the O’Shannassy and Maroondah water catchments only. The file represents a raster grid with 20 x 20 m cells. Within each cell fire severity is recorded on a scale of 1-5. 1) high severity crown fire 2) crown scorch 3) moderate crown fire (canopy survives) 4) understorey burn only 5) no fire in the crown or the understorey.
Instrument
None


Number
2
Title
Assembling predicted fire severity data
Description
We sourced data which mapped the probability of an area being retained as a fire refuge for fauna vulnerable to the effects of fire (probability of area remaining unburnt), from a study published by Mackey et al. (2002). As the original data used to create their model was unavailable, we rasterised a high quality digital image of the final published map showing the predicted distribution of areas likely to remain unburnt following a fire. This was trimmed to within the extent of the O’Shannassy and Maroondah water catchments only. The grid cells produced were 20 m x 20 m and shared identical co-ordinates with the DSE fire severity grid cells. This enabled a direct comparison to be made. The predicted severity data takes the form of a scale from 1-9, with 1 being a low probability that a location will remain unburnt and 9 being a high probability that a location will remain unburnt. Both sets of data were merged to form a large table of co-ordinates, severity values and predicted values for each catchment. To add depth to our analyses we also added environmental variables to each grid cell; topographic wetness index (twi), elevation, precipitation and aspect. To conduct analyses of spatial autocorrelation, we also included a spatially lagged response variable (SLRV) in our dataset (fm4, fm8). These were calculated in ArcMap using the focal mean tool, which produces a severity value for each cell based on the mean severity values in the surrounding 4 (rook) and 8 (queen) cells.
Instrument
None


File Descriptions

Name
lvic_berry_fire_severity_maroondahcatchment_p363t617.csv
Description

aspe
definitionEast component of aspect based on sine of aspect angle (continuous value from -1 to +1) from neighbourhood geometry of the 20 m DEM
ratio number typereal
ratio standard unitdimensionless
aspn
definitionNorth component of aspect based on cosine of aspect angle (continuous value from -1 to +1) from neighbourhood geometry of the 20 m DEM
ratio number typereal
ratio standard unitmole
cell
definitionCell number in grid (1 is top right)
ordinal text definitionnumber
col
definitionColumn location in raster grid
ordinal text definitionnumber
crownfire
definitionFire severity re-classified into binomial measure of crownfire = 1 or other = 0
nominal enumeration codes
0other - combined DSE fire severity classes 3 + 4 + 5
1crownfire - combined DSE fire severity classes 1 + 2
ele
definitionElevation meters (ASL). 20 m DEM, created using Vicmap 10m contours, spot heights and watercourses
interval number typewhole
interval standard unitmeter
fm4
definitionMean fire severity value of the 4 adjacent neighbourhood cells
ordinal text definitionCharacter
fm8
definitionmean fire severity value of all 8 neighbourhood cells
ordinal text definitionCharacter
fsev
definitionFire severity meaure
ordinal enumeration codes
1crown scorch
2crown burn
3moderate crown scorch
4light or no crown scorch, understorey burnt
5no crown scorch, no understorey burnt
lowsev
definitionFire severity re-classified into binomial measure of low severity fire = 1 or other = 0
nominal enumeration codes
0other- combined DSE fire severity classes 1 + 2
1low severity fire - combined DSE fire severity classes 3 + 4 + 5
pref
definitionProbability of area remaining unburnt following fire from Mackey et al (2002). These values were generated as the final product of the Mackey et al (2002) modelling process. These values represent the probability of a grid cell remaining unburnt following a fire. As these values represent a scale of probability and are not categorical we can only provide a qualitative description of the characteristics associated with values at each end of the scale. These are as follows; 1 can be interpreted as = Low percentile mean fire interval (<100 years), low probability of multi-agedness (<25%). lower mean topographic wetness index (TWI), higher elevation percentile, higher annual mean temperature. 9 can be interpreted as = 90-100% percentile mean fire interval (>500 years), high probability of multi-agedness (>65%), higher mean topographic wetness index (TWI), lower elevation percentile, lower annual mean temperature.
ordinal text definitionCharacter
row
definitionRow location in raster grid
ordinal text definitionnumber
slope
definitionSlope based on neighbourhood geometry of the 20 m DEM.
interval number typereal
interval standard unitdegree
twi
definitionTopographic wetness index. Index of contributing catchment divided by slope at each grid cell of the 20 m DEM TWI is a continuous terrain-based measure of potential wetness that indicates position in the landscape. It ranges from negative values on hill tops and ridges (with no contributing catchment) then upper slopes (small contributing catchment/steep slope) to increasingly higher positive values through lower slopes, valley flats and eventually drainage lines.
interval number typereal
interval standard unitdimensionless
x
definitionLatitude WGS84 decimal degrees
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
xcord
definitionx co-ordinate AGD66. Co-oridinates for the centre of each 20 m grid cell
interval number typewhole
interval standard unitmeter
y
definitionLongitude WGS84 decimal degrees
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
ycord
definitiony co-ordinate AGD66. Co-oridinates for the centre of each 20 m grid cell
ratio number typewhole
ratio standard unitnumber


Name
lvic_berry_fire_severity_oshannassycatchment_p363t618.csv
Description

aspe
definitionEast component of aspect based on sine of aspect angle (continuous value from -1 to +1) from neighbourhood geometry of the 20 m DEM
ratio number typereal
ratio standard unitdimensionless
aspn
definitionNorth component of aspect based on cosine of aspect angle (continuous value from -1 to +1) from neighbourhood geometry of the 20 m DEM
ratio number typereal
ratio standard unitdimensionless
cell
definitionCell number in grid (1 is top right)
ordinal text definitionnumber
col
definitionColumn location in raster grid
ordinal text definitionnumber
crownfire
definitionFire severity re-classified into binomial measure of crownfire = 1 or other = 0
nominal enumeration codes
0other - combined DSE fire severity classes 3 + 4 + 5
1crownfire - combined DSE fire severity classes 1 + 2
ele
definitionElevation meters (ASL). 20 m DEM, created using Vicmap 10m contours, spot heights and watercourses
interval number typewhole
interval standard unitmeter
fm4
definitionMean fire severity value of the 4 adjacent neighbourhood cells
ordinal text definitionCharacter
fm8
definitionmean fire severity value of all 8 neighbourhood cells
ordinal text definitionCharacter
fsev
definitionFire severity meaure
ordinal enumeration codes
1crown scorch
2crown burn
3moderate crown scorch
4light or no crown scorch, understorey burnt
5no crown scorch, no understorey burnt
lowsev
definitionFire severity re-classified into binomial measure of low severity fire = 1 or other = 0
nominal enumeration codes
0other- combined DSE fire severity classes 1 + 2
1low severity fire - combined DSE fire severity classes 3 + 4 + 5
pref
definitionProbability of area remaining unburnt following fire from Mackey et al (2002). These values were generated as the final product of the Mackey et al (2002) modelling process. These values represent the probability of a grid cell remaining unburnt following a fire. As these values represent a scale of probability and are not categorical we can only provide a qualitative description of the characteristics associated with values at each end of the scale. These are as follows; 1 can be interpreted as = Low percentile mean fire interval (<100 years), low probability of multi-agedness (<25%). lower mean topographic wetness index (TWI), higher elevation percentile, higher annual mean temperature. 9 can be interpreted as = 90-100% percentile mean fire interval (>500 years), high probability of multi-agedness (>65%), higher mean topographic wetness index (TWI), lower elevation percentile, lower annual mean temperature.
ordinal text definitionCharacter
row
definitionRow location in raster grid
ordinal text definitionnumber
slope
definitionSlope based on neighbourhood geometry of the 20 m DEM.
interval number typereal
interval standard unitdegree
twi
definitionTopographic wetness index. Index of contributing catchment divided by slope at each grid cell of the 20 m DEM TWI is a continuous terrain-based measure of potential wetness that indicates position in the landscape. It ranges from negative values on hill tops and ridges (with no contributing catchment) then upper slopes (small contributing catchment/steep slope) to increasingly higher positive values through lower slopes, valley flats and eventually drainage lines.
interval number typereal
interval standard unitdimensionless
x
definitionLatitude WGS84 decimal degrees
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
xcord
definitionx co-ordinate AGD66. Co-oridinates for the centre of each 20 m grid cell
interval number typewhole
interval standard unitmeter
y
definitionLongitude WGS84 decimal degrees
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
ycord
definitiony co-ordinate AGD66. Co-oridinates for the centre of each 20 m grid cell
ratio number typewhole
ratio standard unitnumber


Contact Emaildavid.lindenmayer@anu.edu.au
david.keith@environment.nsw.gov.au
Laurence.berry@anu.edu.au
david.keith@unsw.edu.au
davoblair@nex.net.au
Contact AddressFenner School of Environment & Society
ANU College of Medicine, Biology & Environment
rank Fenner Building 141
Linnaeus Way
CANBERRA, ACT, 0200
Australia
Contact Phone Number+61 2 612 50654
+61 439 660 996
+61 2 9995 5000
+61 2 6125 7653
+61 427 770 593
+61 2 9385 2111
+61 427 856 498
Contact Fax Number+61 2 6125 0746
Principal InvestigatorDavid Lindenmayer
SupervisorsDavid Lindenmayer
CollaboratorsBrendan Mackey
Laurence Berry
John Stein
Fields of Research0501 - Ecological Applications
0502 - Environmental Science and Management
KeywordsGCMD:Earth Science Services > Hazards Management > Hazards Planning
LTERN Monitoring Theme:Fire
LTERN Monitoring Theme:Fragmentation
Victorian Tall Eucalypt Forest
Fire Severity Predictions And Maps
Type of Research ActivityStrategic basic research
Date Coverage
Date FromDate To
20022009
Geospatial Location
Location TypeLocation Value
TextO’Shannassy and Maroondah Water Catchments ~ approximately 80km NE of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia
DCMI Box notation conformant with iso 19139northlimit = -37.584; southlimit = -37.6579; westlimit = 145.5; eastLimit = 145.7311
Date of data creation2015-05-31
Year of data publication2015
Creator(s) for Citation
Given NameSurname
DavidLindenmayer
DavidBlair
DavidKeith
LachlanMcBurney
LaurenceBerry
Publisher for CitationLong Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN), ANU Data Commons, The Australian National University
Publications

Identifier Type

Identifier Value

Publication Title
Remote sensing guideline for assessing landscape-scale fire severity in Victoria’s forest estate.
Publication Reference
Department of Sustainability and Environment (2009) Remote sensing guideline for assessing landscape-scale fire severity in Victoria’s forest estate. Unpublished technical manual., Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.


Identifier Type
International Standard Book Number
Identifier Value
9780643090040
Publication Title
Wildlife, Fire and Future Climate: A Forest Ecosystem Analysis
Publication Reference
Mackey, B., D. Lindenmayer, M. Gill, M. McCarthy, and J. Lindesay. 2002. Wildlife, Fire and Future Climate: A Forest Ecosystem Analysis. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.


Related Websites
URLTitle
http://hdl.handle.net/1885/130861ANU Open Research. Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN) collection.
Other Related IdentifiersMorphoId:ltern2.288
PackageId:363
Access RightsIf this data is accepted for publication, the metadata should be made live as soon as possible. However, the data should be embargoed until appropriate approval to publish has been received from whoever holds the rights to reproduce the fire severity data originally created by DSE 2009 (John Stein).

Approval to reproduce the Mackey et al (2002) data can be sought from David Lindenmayer, a co-author on the original paper.

These conditions must be included when licensing any derivative works.
Access Rights TypeOpen
Rights held in and over the dataCreative Commons Licence (CC BY-SA) is assigned to this data. Details of the licence can be found at http://creativecommons.org.au/licences.
Licence TypeCC-BY-SA - Attribution-SharedAlice (Version 4.0)
LicenceLTERN Deed: 38
Date of execution: 2015-03-16
Original Licence:TERN-BY-SA-1_0

Retention PeriodIndefinitely
Data Management PlanNo
Status: Published
Published To:
- Australian National University
- Australian National Data Service
Identifier: anudc:5822
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