Woodland Restoration Plot Network: Bird Survey Data (Winter), Western Sydney Parklands (Western Sydney Regional Park), Australia, 2014

Typecollection
TitleWoodland Restoration Plot Network: Bird Survey Data (Winter), Western Sydney Parklands (Western Sydney Regional Park), Australia, 2014
Alternate TitleWoodland Restoration Plot Network: Winter Bird Survey Data, 2014
Collection TypeDataset
Access PrivilegesLong Term Ecological Research Network
DOI - Digital Object Identifier10.25911/5c3c04e1e1c33
Website Addresshttps://datacommons.anu.edu.au/
Metadata LanguageEnglish
Data LanguageEnglish
Brief DescriptionThe Woodland Restoration Plot Network Winter Bird Survey Data Package contains bird point count survey data for thirty 0.1 hectare sites which were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago.

The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001. A synopsis of related data packages which have been collected as part of the Woodland Restoration Plot Network’s full program is provided at https://doi.org/10.25911/5c36e5688ff89.

Full DescriptionAbstract: The Woodland Restoration Plot Network Winter Bird Survey Data Package contains bird point count survey data for thirty 0.1 hectare sites which were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago.

The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001. A synopsis of related data packages which have been collected as part of the Woodland Restoration Plot Network’s full program is provided at https://doi.org/10.25911/5c36e5688ff89.

Greening Australia, pers. comm.). All sites were slashed and sprayed with glyphosate before planting was undertaken. Twenty-six indigenous trees and shrub species, propagated to tubestock from local seed sources, were planted mechanically in rows after the pasture began to break down. The mix of planted species varied across the landscape, the aim being to match species with soils and topographic positions occupied by their wild populations. All plants were weed matted with a recycled paper disc and surrounded by a protective plastic sleeve. Maintenance sprays of glyphosate were applied in spring and autumn for two-three years after planting to reduce competition from weeds in the vicinity of plants. To reduce the risk of fire, mechanical slashing was carried out amongst the plantings and hazard reduction fires were lit in areas surrounding plantings at approximately annual intervals. Since the late 1990s, cattle have been reintroduced into the southern areas of plantings, but fencing has been constructed to exclude livestock from some restoration areas and remnants (D. Williams, Greening Australia, pers. comm.). Cattle continue to be excluded from the northern areas of plantings.

The study landscape therefore comprises a mosaic of patches including untreated pastures, remnant woodlands with various histories of past disturbance and a chronosequence of restoration plantings with dates of origin from 1992 to 2002.

The aims of the study design were to sample management treatments (untreated pasture, the chronosequence of restored vegetation and remnant woodland) across four primary locations (Hoxton Park, Plough and Harrow Property, Western Sydney Regional Park and Prospect Reservoir). A fully randomised orthogonal sampling design was not possible because all management treatments were not represented at each of the four primary locations. Sample sites representing different management treatments were therefore situated haphazardly within patches, to sample areas with similar topography (upper and mid slopes) to minimise environmental variation that may potentially confound management effects. The first set of vegetation surveys were carried out in 2001 (25 sites), with repeat surveys of new haphazardly selected sites to sample the same patch types in 2004 (54 sites), 2009 (24 sites) and 2012 (30 sites). The total number of sites varied between surveys depending on available resources, but the proportional stratification among patch types and ages remained the same. Invertebrates were sampled in late 2002 and 2009. Soils were sampled in 2010 by collaborators at UWS. A survey of avifauna commenced in 2013.

Study extent: The study site is located on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. During their period of pastoral management (prior to 1990), the sites have been grazed by cattle, fertilised and planted with exotic pasture grasses, particularly Phalaris species. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. Restoration projects commenced in the area in 1992 with a stated goal of ‘re-establishment of native vegetation’ (Perkins 1997). The restoration plantings were carried out in a pattern designed to connect remnant patches of woodland, which were also the primary sources of seed for tubestock. To evaluate success against the above goal, we therefore identified the remnants as suitable reference sites to which the restored sites were expected to increase their resemblance in composition and structure over time. Disturbance resulting from past agricultural practices in the area have impacted upon remnant patches to varying degrees, but these were the best available examples of native woodland in the region. Untreated pasture is defined as a control, from which restored sites are expected to become increasingly dissimilar in species composition and vegetation structure with time.

The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001.

Project funding
Since 2012 this project has been part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN). This work was supported by the Australian Government’s Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (www.tern.org.au) – an Australian research infrastructure facility established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and Education Infrastructure Fund–Super Science Initiative through the Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education.
Project nameWoodland Restoration Plot Network

Methods

Number
1
Title
Plot set-up
Description
Thirty 0.1 hectare sites which were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. This is part of a larger dataset that spans from 1992.
Instrument
Global Positioning Systems, Compass, Tape Measure, marking tape


Number
2
Title
Bird point count survey
Description
Bird point count survey methods were employed (Pyke and Recher 1984). Point Count Stations are located within the centre of the 20 x 20 m floristic plots. After a one minute settling time, an observer surveys the area surrounding the Point Count Station for a 20 minute period. The species (and the sex and age if appropriate), method (visual or auditory), time (0-3 mins; 3-5 mins; 5-10 mins; 10-15 mins; 15- 20 mins), stratum (canopy; upper-understorey, mid-understorey, lower-understorey; ground), distance (<10 m; 10–20 m; 20–30 m; > 30 m) and orientation (N; NE; E; SE; S; SW; W; NW) from observer, and activity type, is recorded for the birds detected. Fly-overs, juveniles and flushes are recorded separately. Each of the Point Count Stations are surveyed a minimum of six times by two independent observers between sunrise and 10:00 am within a seasonal period. Sites within 500 m of each other are not surveyed during the same morning, and wherever possible, each station is surveyed at a different time on subsequent visits. The starting time, weather conditions (approx. temp, wind strength, precipitation), presence of flowering or fruiting plants, and an estimate of ambient noise is also recorded. Surveys are not conducted on days of rain (more than a drizzle), high wind, or fog.
Instrument


File Descriptions

Name
kwrt_birds_winter_2014_p162t313.csv
Description

ambient_noise
definitionAmbient noise
nominal enumeration codes
0Low - very low
1Very low
2Very low - low
3Low
4Low - moderate
5Moderate
6Moderate - high
7High
8High - very high
9Very high
cloud_cover
definitionTemperature
nominal enumeration codes
0Clear
1¼
2½
3¾
4Total Cover
common_name
definitionSpecies common name
nominal text definitionCharacter
count_best
definitionBest estimate count (species count)
ratio number typenatural
ratio standard unitnumber
count_lower
definitionEstimated species counts – lower bound
ratio number typenatural
ratio standard unitnumber
count_upper
definitionEstimated species counts – upper bounds
ratio number typenatural
ratio standard unitnumber
distance
definitionDistance
nominal enumeration codes
1Within 10 metres of the point count station
2Between 10-20 metres from the point count station
3Between 20-30 metres from the point count station
4Greater than 30 metres from the point count station
5Greater than 500 metres from the point count station
flyover
definitionFlyover
nominal enumeration codes
0NA
1within 30 metres of the point count station
2greater than 30 metres from the point count station
3greater than 500 metres from the point count station
fruit_flowers
definitionFruit/ flowers
nominal enumeration codes
0Flowers
1Fruit
2Flowers and fruit
3TBA
grazing
definitionPresence or absence of evidence of grazing
nominal enumeration codes
0Not grazed
1Grazed
identification_confidence
definitionIdentification confidence
nominal enumeration codes
0Less than 30% confident or unknown
190-100% Confident
260-90% Confident
330-60% Confident
letter_code
definitionSpecies alphabetical code
nominal text definitionCharacter
observation_type
definitionObservation type
nominal enumeration codes
1Seen
2Heard
3Heard then seen
observer_initials
definitionObserver Initials
nominal text definitionCharacter
patch_type
definitionPatch type
nominal enumeration codes
1Remnant
2Planting
3Pasture
rain
definitionRain
nominal enumeration codes
a0 (nil)
b0-1 (nil to drizzle)
c0-2 (nil to rainy)
d1 (drizzle)
e1-2 (drizzle to rainy)
f2 (rainy)
scientific_name
definitionSpecies scientific name
nominal text definitionCharacter
season
definitionSeason
nominal enumeration codes
springSpring
winterWinter
site_name
definitionSite name
nominal text definitionCharacter
species_code
definitionSpecies code
nominal text definitionCharacter
stand_age
definitionStand age in years. 0–99 years — pasture assigned age. 100 years — remnant assigned age.
ratio number typewhole
ratio standard unitnominalYear
survey_date
date time formatYYYY-MM-DD
definitionSurvey date
temperature
definitionTemperature
nominal enumeration codes
1Very cold
2Very cold - cold
3Cold
4Cold - mild
5Mild
6Mild - warm
7Warm
8Warm to hot
9Hot
time_of_first_observation
definitionTime of first observation
nominal enumeration codes
10-3 minutes from the start time
24-5 minutes from the start time
36-10 minutes from the start time
411-15 minutes from the start time
516-20 minutes from the start time
visit
definitionSequential visit number - Point Count Stations surveyed a minimum of six times by two independent observers between sunrise and 10:00 am within a seasonal period.
nominal text definitionCharacter
wind
definitionWind
nominal enumeration codes
a0 (nil)
b0-1 (nil to leaves rustle)
c0-2 (nil to branches move)
d0-3 (nil to large branches move)
e0-4 (nil to very occasional large gust)
f1 (leaves rustle)
g1-2 (leaves rustle to branches move)
h1-3 (leaves rustle to large branches move)
i1-4 (leaves rustle to very occasional large gust)
j2 (branches move)
k2-3 (branches move to large branches move)
l2-4 (branches move to very occasional large gust)
m3 (large branches move)


Contact Emaildavid.keith@environment.nsw.gov.au
christopher.simpson@unsw.edu.au
k.wilkins@unsw.edu.au
mark.tozer@environment.nsw.gov.au
r.woodward@unsw.edu.au
david.keith@unsw.edu.au
Contact AddressAustralian Wetlands, Rivers and Landscapes Centre,
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences,
University of New South Wales
SYDNEY, NSW, 2052
Australia

Contact Phone Number+61 2 9995 5000
+61 409 159 334
+61 2 9385 8435
+61 2 9585 6496
+61 2 9585 6051
+61 2 9385 2111
+61 427 856 498
+61 428 810 214
Principal InvestigatorDavid Keith
SupervisorsDavid Keith
CollaboratorsKaty Wilkins
Chris Simpson
Dick Williams
Fields of Research0501 - Ecological Applications
0602 - Ecology
0608 - Zoology
KeywordsGCMD:Earth Science > Biological Classification > Animals/Vertebrates > Birds
LTERN Monitoring Theme:Birds
LTERN Monitoring Theme:Invasive animals
keyword:Bird point count
keyword:Farmland
keyword:Restored vegetation
keyword:Native plantings
keyword:Remnant vegetation
keyword:Abandoned pasture
keyword:Originally woodland
Woodland Restoration
Winter Bird Survey Data
Type of Research ActivityPure basic research
Date Coverage
Date FromDate To
2014
Geospatial Location
Location TypeLocation Value
TextWestern Sydney Parklands (Western Sydney Regional Park), Australia
DCMI Box notation conformant with iso 19139northlimit = -33.844866; southlimit = -33.908897; westlimit = 150.817755; eastLimit = 150.871493
Date of data creation2014-12-01
Year of data publication2014
Creator(s) for Citation
Given NameSurname
DavidKeith
ChrisSimpson
KatyWilkins
MarkTozer
DickWilliams
Publisher for CitationLong Term Ecological Research Network
Publications

Identifier Type

Identifier Value

Publication Title
Methods of censusing birds in Australia
Publication Reference
See Pyke GH, Recher HF (1984), pp. 55-63 in Methods of censusing birds in Australia : proceedings of a symposium organised jointly by the Zoology Section of the ANZAAS and the Western Australian Group of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, May 17 1983 / edited by S.J.J.F. Davies (Dept of Conservation and Environment with the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union)


Other Related IdentifiersMorphoId:ltern2.249
PackageId:162
Access RightsSpecial Conditions: Prior to publication of research utilising this data, the data provider (David Keith) requests consultation.
Access Rights TypeOpen
Rights held in and over the dataCreative Commons Licence (CC BY- Attribution) is assigned to this data. Details of the licence can be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Licence TypeCC-BY - Attribution (Version 4)
LicenceLTERN Deed: 13
Date of execution: 2014-04-30
Data Locationhttps://datacommons.anu.edu.au
Retention PeriodIndefinitely
Data Management PlanNo
Status: Published
Published To:
- Australian National University
- Australian National Data Service
Identifier: anudc:5787
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Data Files

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