Woodland Restoration Plot Network: Vegetation Structure and Composition Data, Western Sydney Parklands (Western Sydney Regional Park), Australia, 2012

Abstract: The Woodland Restoration Plot Network Vegetation Structure and Composition Data Package contains vegetation floristics and structure survey data for thirty-six 0.1 hectare sites which were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001. A synopsis of related data packages which have been collected as part of the Woodland Restoration Plot Network’s full program is provided at https://doi.org/10.25911/5c36e5688ff89. Sampling method: The restoration process was initiated with exclusion of livestock and weed control (J. Christie, Greening Australia, pers. comm.). All sites were slashed and sprayed with glyphosate before planting was undertaken. Twenty-six indigenous trees and shrub species, propagated to tubestock from local seed sources, were planted mechanically in rows after the pasture began to break down. The mix of planted species varied across the landscape, the aim being to match species with soils and topographic positions occupied by their wild populations. All plants were weed matted with a recycled paper disc and surrounded by a protective plastic sleeve. Maintenance sprays of glyphosate were applied in spring and autumn for two-three years after planting to reduce competition from weeds in the vicinity of plants. To reduce the risk of fire, mechanical slashing was carried out amongst the plantings and hazard reduction fires were lit in areas surrounding plantings at approximately annual intervals. Since the late 1990s, cattle have beenreintroduced into the southern areas of plantings, but fencing has been constructed to exclude livestock from some restoration areas and remnants (D. Williams, Greening Australia, pers. comm.). Cattle continue to be excluded from the northern areas of plantings. The study landscape therefore comprises a mosaic of patches including untreated pastures, remnant woodlands with various histories of past disturbance and a chronosequence of restoration plantings with dates of origin from 1992 to 2002. The aims of the study design were to sample management treatments (untreated pasture, the chronosequence of restored vegetation and remnant woodland) across locations within Western Sydney Regional Park and Prospect Reservoir. A fully randomised factorial sampling design was not possible because all management treatments were not represented randomly across the study area. Sample sites representing different management treatments were therefore situated haphazardly within patches, to sample areas with different management histories on similar topography (upper and mid slopes). The first set of vegetation surveys were carried out in 2001 (25 sites), with repeat surveys of new haphazardly selected sites to sample the same patch types in 2004 (52 sites), 2006 (20 sites) and 2012 (36 sites). The total number of sites varied between surveys depending on available resources, but the proportional stratification among patch types and ages remained the same. Invertebrates were sampled at these sites in late 2002 and 2009. Soils were sampled in 2010 by collaborators at UWS. A survey of avifauna commenced in 2013. Study extent: The study site is located on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, pasture (both grazed and abandoned). During their period of pastoral management (prior to 1990), the sites have been grazed by cattle, fertilised and planted with exotic pasture grasses, particularly Phalaris species. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. Restoration projects commenced in the area in 1992 with a stated goal of ‘re-establishment of native vegetation’ (Perkins 1997). The restoration plantings were carried out in a pattern designed to connect remnant patches of woodland, which were also the primary sources of seed for tubestock. To evaluate success against the above goal, we therefore identified the remnants as suitable reference sites to which the restored sites were expected to increase their resemblance in composition and structure over time. Disturbance resulting from past agricultural practices in the area have impacted upon remnant patches to varying degrees, but these were the best available examples of native woodland in the region. Untreated pasture is defined as a control, from which restored sites are expected to become increasinglydissimilar in species composition and vegetation structure with time. Project funding: Between 2012 and 2018 this project was part of, and funded through the Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN) a facility within the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and supported by the Australian Government through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy.
Type
collection
Title
Woodland Restoration Plot Network: Vegetation Structure and Composition Data, Western Sydney Parklands (Western Sydney Regional Park), Australia, 2012
Alternate Title
Woodland Restoration Plot Network: Vegetation Structure And Composition Data, 2012
Collection Type
Dataset
Access Privileges
Long Term Ecological Research Network
DOI - Digital Object Identifier
10.25911/5c3bfe825b5d1
Website Address
https://datacommons.anu.edu.au/
Metadata Language
English
Data Language
English
Brief Description
The Woodland Restoration Plot Network Vegetation Structure and Composition Data Package contains vegetation floristics and structure survey data for thirty-six 0.1 hectare sites which were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001. A synopsis of related data packages which have been collected as part of the Woodland Restoration Plot Network’s full program is provided at https://doi.org/10.25911/5c36e5688ff89.
Full Description
Abstract: The Woodland Restoration Plot Network Vegetation Structure and Composition Data Package contains vegetation floristics and structure survey data for thirty-six 0.1 hectare sites which were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001. A synopsis of related data packages which have been collected as part of the Woodland Restoration Plot Network’s full program is provided at https://doi.org/10.25911/5c36e5688ff89. Sampling method: The restoration process was initiated with exclusion of livestock and weed control (J. Christie, Greening Australia, pers. comm.). All sites were slashed and sprayed with glyphosate before planting was undertaken. Twenty-six indigenous trees and shrub species, propagated to tubestock from local seed sources, were planted mechanically in rows after the pasture began to break down. The mix of planted species varied across the landscape, the aim being to match species with soils and topographic positions occupied by their wild populations. All plants were weed matted with a recycled paper disc and surrounded by a protective plastic sleeve. Maintenance sprays of glyphosate were applied in spring and autumn for two-three years after planting to reduce competition from weeds in the vicinity of plants. To reduce the risk of fire, mechanical slashing was carried out amongst the plantings and hazard reduction fires were lit in areas surrounding plantings at approximately annual intervals. Since the late 1990s, cattle have beenreintroduced into the southern areas of plantings, but fencing has been constructed to exclude livestock from some restoration areas and remnants (D. Williams, Greening Australia, pers. comm.). Cattle continue to be excluded from the northern areas of plantings. The study landscape therefore comprises a mosaic of patches including untreated pastures, remnant woodlands with various histories of past disturbance and a chronosequence of restoration plantings with dates of origin from 1992 to 2002. The aims of the study design were to sample management treatments (untreated pasture, the chronosequence of restored vegetation and remnant woodland) across locations within Western Sydney Regional Park and Prospect Reservoir. A fully randomised factorial sampling design was not possible because all management treatments were not represented randomly across the study area. Sample sites representing different management treatments were therefore situated haphazardly within patches, to sample areas with different management histories on similar topography (upper and mid slopes). The first set of vegetation surveys were carried out in 2001 (25 sites), with repeat surveys of new haphazardly selected sites to sample the same patch types in 2004 (52 sites), 2006 (20 sites) and 2012 (36 sites). The total number of sites varied between surveys depending on available resources, but the proportional stratification among patch types and ages remained the same. Invertebrates were sampled at these sites in late 2002 and 2009. Soils were sampled in 2010 by collaborators at UWS. A survey of avifauna commenced in 2013. Study extent: The study site is located on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, pasture (both grazed and abandoned). During their period of pastoral management (prior to 1990), the sites have been grazed by cattle, fertilised and planted with exotic pasture grasses, particularly Phalaris species. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. Restoration projects commenced in the area in 1992 with a stated goal of ‘re-establishment of native vegetation’ (Perkins 1997). The restoration plantings were carried out in a pattern designed to connect remnant patches of woodland, which were also the primary sources of seed for tubestock. To evaluate success against the above goal, we therefore identified the remnants as suitable reference sites to which the restored sites were expected to increase their resemblance in composition and structure over time. Disturbance resulting from past agricultural practices in the area have impacted upon remnant patches to varying degrees, but these were the best available examples of native woodland in the region. Untreated pasture is defined as a control, from which restored sites are expected to become increasinglydissimilar in species composition and vegetation structure with time. Project funding: Between 2012 and 2018 this project was part of, and funded through the Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN) a facility within the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and supported by the Australian Government through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy.
Methods
1
Plot set-up
Thirty-six 0.1 hectare sites were established on retired farmland that includes a mosaic of restored vegetation (native plantings) of varying ages juxtaposed with patches of remnant vegetation and untreated, abandoned pasture. All sites were originally woodland prior to agricultural development about 200 years ago. This is part of a larger dataset that spans from 1992.
Star pickets (3 per site), 3x50m measuring tapes, clinometer, mallet, site tag for permanent identification.
2
Vegetation survey
Plant species composition is recorded using the frequency score method (Wilkins et al. 2003), in which complete species lists are compiled in each of six nested square subquadrats. Subquadrat dimensions are successively doubled from 1 m to 2 m, 4 m, 8 m, 16 m, and 32 m. All six subplots have a common corner marked with a star picket. Only species rooted in the additional area of each subplot are recorded (i.e. excluding records from smaller nested subplots). A frequency score is computed for each species by counting the number of sub-quadrats in which it occurred. Planted and wild occurrences of the same species are recorded separately. A species list with Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance estimates (8-point scale) was recorded in an additional 20 x 20 m plot inserted >within the nested sequence of subplots (see Tozer et al. (2010) for sampling methods). Average height and cover of each vegetation stratum are visually estimated to assess vegetation structure, averaged from the four quadrants of each 20 x 20 m plot. Percentage cover of bare ground and leaf litter, and environmental co-variables including aspect, slope, soil texture and grid location are also recorded in the 20 x 20 m plot. The Woodland Restoration Plot Network research plots commenced in 1992 and have been revisited every 3-4 years since 2001.
File Descriptions
kwrt_vegetation_structure_2011-2013_p100t323.csv
lowerheight
definitionLower height of stratum
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
modeheight
definitionModal height of stratum
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
number of records210
planted1
definitionPlanted or not-planted
nominal enumeration codes
nNot planted
NANot applicable
yPlanted
planted2
definitionPlanted or not-planted
nominal enumeration codes
nNot planted
NANot applicable
yPlanted
planted3
definitionPlanted or not-planted
nominal enumeration codes
nNot planted
NANot applicable
yPlanted
recorder
definitionField observer code
nominal text definitionCharacter
replicatenumber
definitionTemporal replicate (all 1)
nominal text definitionCharacter
sitenumber
definitionUnique site identifier
nominal text definitionCharacter
species1name
definitionScientific name of the most dominant species at this strata
nominal text definitionCharacter
species1number
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field of the most dominant species at this strata
nominal text definitionCharacter
species2name
definitionScientific name of the second most dominant species at this strata
nominal text definitionCharacter
species2number
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field of the second most dominant species at this strata
nominal text definitionCharacter
species3name
definitionScientific name of the third most dominant species at this strata
nominal text definitionCharacter
species3number
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field of the third most dominant species at this strata
nominal text definitionCharacter
stratapercentcover
definitionA measure or estimate of the appropriate cover measure for each recorded species; recorded from 1–5 and then to the nearest 5%. If the cover of a species is less than 1% and it is considered important then the estimated cover should be entered (e.g. 0.4%).
ratio number typereal
ratio standard unitnumber
stratum
definitionStratum code
nominal enumeration codes
L1Tallest ground stratum present
L2Second ground stratum (if present)
L3Third (lowest) ground stratum (if present)
M1Tallest mid-stratum
M2Second mid-stratum (if present)
M3Third (lowest) mid-stratum (if present)
TCanopy
T2Sub-canopy (if present)
T3Third (lowest) canopy (if present)
stratum_descriptor
definitionStratum description
nominal text definitionCharacter
upperheight
definitionUpper height of stratum
interval number typereal
interval standard unitmeter
kwrt_vegetation_composition_20x20m_subplot_2011-2013_p100t170.csv
assign_flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
assign_species_code
definitionSpecies identifier code as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
coverscore
definitionBraun-Blanquet cover abundance score within 20 x 20m plot
ordinal enumeration codes
1Rare and less than 5% cover
2Occasional and less than 5% cover
3Common and less than 5% cover
4Very common and less than 5% cover
55-25% cover
626-50% cover
751-75% cover
876-100% cover
flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
number
definitionNumber of individuals counted within 20 x 20m plot
ratio number typewhole
ratio standard unitnumber
number of records1613
origin
definitionThe origin of the species (native, introduced, unknown, planted or dead)
nominal enumeration codes
DeadPlanted, standing dead plants
IntroducedNot planted, species is known to be introduced
NativeNot planted, species is known to be native
PlantedPlanted, alive individuals
UnknownNot planted, it is not known if the species is native or introduced
percentagecover
definitionEstimated percentage cover within 20 x 20m plot. A measure or estimate of the appropriate cover measure for each recorded species; recorded from 1–5 and then to the nearest 5%. If the cover of a species is less than 1% and it is considered important then the estimated cover should be entered (e.g. 0.4).
ratio number typereal
ratio standard unitnumber
replicatenumber
definitionTemporal replicate (all 1)
nominal text definitionCharacter
sitenumber
definitionUnique site identifier
ordinal text definitionCharacter
speciesnumber
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
subplotnumber
definitionNested subplot number
nominal enumeration codes
120 x 20 m
21 x 1 m
32 x 2 m
44 x 4 m
58 x 8 m
616 x 16 m
732 x 32 m
kwrt_vegetation_composition_nested_subplot_PA_2011-2013_p100t613.csv
assign_flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
assign_species_code
definitionSpecies identifier code as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
number of records5146
origin
definitionThe origin of the species (native, introduced, unknown, planted or dead)
nominal enumeration codes
DeadPlanted, standing dead plants
IntroducedNot planted, species is known to be introduced
NativeNot planted, species is known to be native
PlantedPlanted, alive individuals
UnknownNot planted, it is not known if the species is native or introduced
replicatenumber
definitionTemporal replicate (all 1)
nominal text definitionCharacter
sitenumber
definitionUnique site identifier
nominal text definitionCharacter
speciesnumber
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
subplotnumber
definitionNested subplot number
nominal text definitionCharacter
kwrt_vegetation_composition_planted_20x20_subplot_2011-2013_p100t614.csv
assign_flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
assign_species_code
definitionSpecies identifier code as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
coverscore
definitionBraun-Blanquet cover abundance score within 20 x 20m plot
ordinal enumeration codes
1Rare and less than 5% cover
2Occasional and les than 5% cover
3Common and less than 5% cover
4Very common and less than 5% cover
55-25% cover
626-50% cover
751-75% cover
876-100% cover
flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
number
definitionNumber of individuals counted within 20 x 20m plot
ratio number typewhole
ratio standard unitnumber
number of records130
origin
definitionThe origin of the species (native, introduced, unknown, planted or dead)
nominal enumeration codes
DeadPlanted, standing dead plants
IntroducedNot planted, species is known to be introduced
NativeNot planted, species is known to be native
PlantedPlanted, alive individuals
UnknownNot planted, it is not known if the species is native or introduced
percentagecover
definitionEstimated percentage cover within 20 x 20m plot. A measure or estimate of the appropriate cover measure for each recorded species; recorded from 1–5 and then to the nearest 5%. If the cover of a species is less than 1% and it is considered important then the estimated cover should be entered (e.g. 0.4).
interval number typereal
interval standard unitnumber
replicatenumber
definitionTemporal replicate (all 1)
nominal text definitionCharacter
sitenumber
definitionUnique site identifier
nominal text definitionCharacter
speciesnumber
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
subplotnumber
definitionNested subplot number
nominal text definitionCharacter
kwrt_vegetation_composition_planted_nested_subplot_PA_2011-2013_p100t918.csv
assign_flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
assign_species_code
definitionSpecies identifier code as per current NSW nomenclature
nominal text definitionCharacter
flora_descriptor
definitionSpecies scientific name as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
number of records336
origin
definitionThe origin of the species (native, introduced, unknown, planted or dead)
nominal enumeration codes
DeadPlanted, standing dead plants
IntroducedNot planted, species is known to be introduced
NativeNot planted, species is known to be native
PlantedPlanted, alive individuals
UnknownNot planted, it is not known if the species is native or introduced
replicatenumber
definitionTemporal replicate (all 1)
nominal text definitionCharacter
sitenumber
definitionUnique site identifier. 8 character nomenclature based on NSW vegetation standard site labelling (http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nativeveg/10060nvinttypestand.pdf). Begins with the first 3 consonants of the appropriate 1:25 000 mapsheet, then 2 numbers for sequential numbering of sites on that mapsheet, Geology Code, Aspect (8 classes) and finally coded topographic position. In our survey all geology codes =W - Wianamatta Shale Aspect (Code- degree class, cardinal dierction) 1 -67.6-112.5,E; 2-112.6-157.5, SE; 3-157.6-202.5, SE; 4-202.6-247.5, SW; 5-247.6-292.5, W; 6-292.6-337.5, NW; 7-337.6-22.5, NW; 8-22.6-67.5, NE. Topographic position C - Crest; U - Upper Slope; M - Mid Slope; L - Lower Slope; V - Valley; F - Flats
nominal text definitionCharacter
speciesnumber
definitionSpecies identifier code as recorded in the field
nominal text definitionCharacter
subplotnumber
definitionNested subplot number
nominal enumeration codes
120 x 20 m
21 x 1 m
32 x 2 m
44 x 4 m
58 x 8 m
616 x 16 m
732 x 32 m
Contact Email
david.keith@environment.nsw.gov.au; christopher.simpson@unsw.edu.au; k.wilkins@unsw.edu.au; mark.tozer@environment.nsw.gov.au; r.woodward@unsw.edu.au; david.keith@unsw.edu.au
Contact Address
Australian Wetlands, Rivers and Landscapes Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales SYDNEY, NSW, 2052 Australia
Contact Phone Number
+61 2 9995 5000; +61 409 159 334; +61 2 9385 8435; +61 2 9585 6496; +61 2 9585 6051; +61 2 9385 2111; +61 427 856 498; +61 428 810 214
Principal Investigator
David Keith
Supervisors
David Keith
Collaborators
David Kirkland; Dick Williams
Fields of Research
0501 - Ecological Applications; 0602 - Ecology
Keywords
GCMD:Earth Science > Biosphere > Vegetation; LTERN Monitoring Theme:Vegetation structure; LTERN Monitoring Theme:Plant species composition; Woodland Restoration; Vegetation Structure And Composition Data
Type of Research Activity
Pure basic research
Date Coverage
2012
Geospatial Location
text
Western Sydney Parklands (Western Sydney Regional Park) and Prospect Reservoir are situated approximately 30 km west of Sydney, and extend over an area of nearly 5,280 hectares.
iso19139dcmiBox
northlimit = -33.80273; southlimit = -33.909898; westlimit = 150.810459; eastLimit = 150.915226
Date of data creation
2014-12-11
Year of data publication
2014
Creator(s) for Citation
David
Keith
Chris
Simpson
Katy
Wilkins
Mark
Tozer
Dick
Williams
Publisher for Citation
The Australian National University Data Commons
Publications
Hoxton Park Corridor (North) Land and Vegetation Management Plan.
See: Perkins I. 1997. Hoxton Park Corridor (North) Land and Vegetation Management Plan. Unpublished report. The NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning & Greening Australia (NSW), Sydney.
uri
https://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/getmedia/b4f021cf-86e9-4eca-8f2e-058a7e574a3a/Volume-11(3)-2010-Cun113Toz359-406.pdf.aspx
Native vegetation of southeast NSW: a revised classification and map for the coast and eastern tablelands.
Tozer MG, Turner K, Keith DA, Tindall D, Pennay C, Simpson C, MacKenzie B, Beukers P, Cox S (2010) Native vegetation of southeast NSW: a revised classification and map for the coast and eastern tablelands. Cunninghamia 11(3), 359-406, https://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/getmedia/b4f021cf-86e9-4eca-8f2e-058a7e574a3a/Volume-11(3)-2010-Cun113Toz359-406.pdf.aspx
doi
10.1046/j.1526-100X.2003.rec0244.x
Measuring Success: Evaluating the Restoration of a Grassy Eucalypt Woodland on the Cumberland Plain, Sydney, Australia
Wilkins, S, Keith D.A, Adam P (2003). "Measuring Success: Evaluating the Restoration of a Grassy Eucalypt Woodland on the Cumberland Plain, Sydney, Australia." Restoration Ecology 11(4): 489-503, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.2003.rec0244.x
Other Related Identifiers
MorphoId:ltern2.276; PackageId:100
Access Rights
Special Conditions: Prior to publication of research utilising this data, the data provider (David Keith) requests consultation.
Access Rights Type
Open
Rights held in and over the data
Creative Commons Licence (CC BY- Attribution) is assigned to this data. Details of the licence can be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Licence Type
CC-BY - Attribution (Version 4)
Licence
LTERN Deed: 13 Date of execution: 2014-04-30
Data Location
https://datacommons.anu.edu.au
Retention Period
Indefinitely
Data Management Plan
No
Status: Published
Published to:
  • Australian National University
  • Australian National Data Service
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